Glossary

Alternative Financing and Procurement (AFP): AFP is the name by which public-private partnerships (or P3s) are known in Ontario. P3s represent a long-term, performance-based approach to the procurement and delivery of public infrastructure where the private sector assumes a share of the risks in financing, design, construction, operations and maintenance.

Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR): A measure of the value for money of a project expressed as a ratio of the total benefits divided by the total costs associated with a project.

Building Information Model (BIM): A digital model of a proposed project as well as the terrain (landscape) in which it will be built. These accurate virtual models support project design, allowing better analysis, integration and control than manual processes. When completed, the model contains precise geometry and data needed to support construction activities. After construction, the model can be updated and used to digitally monitor how well the infrastructure is working once it is operational, and can help determine when and where maintenance is needed.

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): A system of dedicated bus lanes, often separated from the roadway by curbs or barriers, which combines features of a rail system (such as stations, payment on the platform instead of on the vehicle, and all-door boarding) with the flexibility of a bus system.

Codeshare: business arrangement where two operators share services along a route or corridor.

Commute Shed: A geographic area from which workers commute into an employment zone or neighbourhood, assuming maximum travel time or distances.

Design-Build-Finance-Operate-Maintain (DBFOM) Model: The private partner designs, builds and finances a public asset (e.g., a hospital, highway, or transit system), provides facility management services and operates the asset under a long-term agreement.

Design-Build-Finance-Maintain (DBFM) Model: The private partner designs, builds and finances a public asset (e.g., a hospital, highway, or transit system) and provides maintenance services under a long-term agreement.

Diesel Multiple Unit (DMU): The generic term for a diesel-powered train where a separate locomotive is not required because the traction system is contained under various cars in the train.

Employment Lands: Privately- and publicly-owned properties that are used or designated for commercial, industrial, or institutional purposes. Commercial includes both office and retail uses.

Environmental Assessment: A process used to predict and mitigate the adverse environmental effects of a project before it is started. It is a planning tool that provides decision-makers with the information they need to ensure all approved projects support a healthy, sustainable environment for present and future generations.

Feeder Services: Local transit services that pick up and deliver passengers to a rail transit station or express bus stop, transfer point, or terminal.

First-mile/Last-mile: First-mile/last-mile refers to how a person connects to and from public transportation services, using a wide range of travel modes.

Greenhouse Gases (GHGs): Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and fluorinated gases, and which are emitted primarily as a result of burning carbon-based fuels.

High Speed Rail (HSR): Systems that operate at speeds on the order of 200 km/h on upgraded, existing corridors and at speeds equal to or greater than 250 km/h on new corridors.  

Interoperation: Technical compatibility of infrastructure, rolling stock, signalling and other subsystems of the rail system, as well as less complex procedures for the authorization of rolling stock to ensure that various types of rail vehicles can safely use the same rail corridor.

Land Value Capture: A way to fund infrastructure improvements by calculating the increased property values that a new transportation project will create and establishing a levy or tax on land or development to reflect this higher value. This is intended to “capture” the increase in property values that will be generated by improved access to transportation, which, like waterfront views or other valued features, can increase property values.

Level-Access Platforms: A platform that is at approximately the same level as the rail or train car floor.

Level Boarding: Refers to interior train floors that are level with station platforms so that a passenger does not have to climb steps to board the train.

Light Rail Transit (LRT), sometimes also defined as “light rapid transit”: A metropolitan electrical railway system characterized by its ability to operate single cars or short trains along exclusive rights-of-way at ground level, on aerial structures, in subways or, occasionally, in streets and to board and discharge passengers at track- or car-floor level.

Modal Split: The proportion of total person-trips using each of the various different modes of transportation, generally expressed as a percentage.

Multimodal Transportation Hub: A place where passengers and/or cargo move between vehicles or between transport modes, which all serve a common location. Public transport hubs can include train stations, rapid transit stations, bus and tram stations or stops, airports and ferry slips.

Net Present Value (NPV): The sum of the present values (i.e., costs subtracted from benefits) of all aspects of a project (design, construction, maintenance and financing) throughout its lifecycle as expressed in today’s dollars.

Over-Serviced/Over-Served: Multiple transit services travelling the same route and visiting the same stops with similar frequency, leading to more services than are needed by travellers.

Reference Concept Design (RCD): A functional design used in the Alternative Financing and Procurement (AFP) model, which is intended to  provide proof of concept and is often used as a basis of design for subsequent design stages. The RCD typically represents approximately 30% of the total design.

Rolling Stock: Any vehicles that operate on a railway track, including train cars and engines.

Stopping Services: Train service that makes stops at local stations between the main stations on the line, as opposed to an express service.

Substantial Completion Payment: A payment made upon completion of one of the more significant milestones in a construction project, affecting the rights and responsibilities of the owner and contractor. At substantial completion, the owner of the asset under construction can assume beneficial occupation (i.e., is able to use the infrastructure).

System and Safety Integrator: A person or persons whose function is to coordinate the design, construction and operation of various rail systems (electrification, signalling, and communications) to ensure safe and reliable operations.

Tilting Train Technology: One of a number of techniques that allows trains to manoeuvre curves safely and more comfortably at higher speeds than the curve may have been designed for.

Traditional Procurement Model: The funding and delivery of infrastructure and services by the public sector using a design-bid-build model.

Transit Project Assessment Process (TPAP): An EA process specifically tailored to transit projects in Ontario. A TPAP sets defined consultation and review guidelines for transit projects and does not require the study of alternative routes or designs.

Transit-Oriented Development: A planning approach that calls for high-density, mixed-use business/residential neighbourhood centres to be clustered around transit stations and corridors. Transit-oriented development is focused within an 800-metre radius of transit stops, with the highest intensity and mix of land uses concentrated within 400 metres of or adjacent to the station. A transit-supportive approach to land-use planning, urban design and transit operations may include transit-oriented development as well as a variety of other strategies that make transit viable and improve the quality of the transit-using experience. These strategies may be implemented near transit stops or stations or at on broader scale, as appropriate.

Value for Money (VfM): Describes the quantitative and/or qualitative benefit to the public expected from a particular procurement method. Quantitative value is achieved through lower cost of a particular procurement method, whereas qualitative value is achieved when a procurement method better supports the goal of the project without costing more.

Wider Economic Benefits (WEBs): The wider benefits to the economy from an increase in accessibility provided by a transport investment, typically quantified due to their impact on agglomeration.

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