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Daily inspection test
Exterior Items

21. Wheels, Hubs and Fasteners

Hub oil below minimum level (when fitted with sight glass)
You must know that wheel hubs use bearings that require lubrication, that oil is often used as a bearing lubricant, that hub caps used with oil-lubricated bearings may have a clear window allowing a visual inspection of the oil fill level, and that a vehicle has this minor defect when you can see that the hub-oil level is below minimum.

Leaking wheel seal
You must know that wheel hubs require seals to keep the lubricant inside the hub; when a wheel seal is leaking, the wheel bearing can fail, and that a vehicle has this minor defect when there is evidence of a leaking wheel seal.

Evidence of imminent wheel, hub or bearing failure
You must know the normal appearance of wheel and hub components, the visual indications of more serious unsafe conditions, and that a vehicle has this major defect when there is visual evidence that a wheel, hub or bearing failure could occur.

Procedure:

    • Where sight glass is present (or describe procedure if not present), inspect the hub-oil level to ensure oil is above the minimum level.
    • Inspect to ensure there is no evidence of a leaking wheel seal – look inside the wheel for oil and stains.
    • Inspect to ensure there is no visual evidence that a wheel, hub or bearing failure could occur.

22. Wheels, Hubs and Fasteners

Wheel has loose, missing or ineffective fastener
You must know: the visual features of different types of wheel systems; the importance of keeping wheel fasteners (normally nuts and bolts) properly tightened; be able to detect missing fasteners and recognize the visual signs of loose or ineffective fasteners; and know that a vehicle has this major defect when any wheel has a loose, missing or ineffective fastener.

Evidence of imminent wheel, hub or bearing failure
You must know the normal appearance of wheel and hub components and the visual indications of more serious unsafe conditions, and that a vehicle has this major defect when there is visual evidence that a wheel, hub or bearing failure could occur.

Procedure:

    • Inspect for any missing fasteners and recognize the visual signs of loose or ineffective fasteners such as a gap between nut and wheel.
    • Inspect to ensure there is no visual evidence that a wheel, hub or bearing failure could occur.

23. Wheels, Hubs and Fasteners

Damaged, cracked or broken wheel, rim, attaching part
You must know the visual features of different types of wheel systems, the normal appearance of the individual components, and that a vehicle has this major defect when any wheel, rim, or any part used to attach the wheel or rim, is damaged, cracked or broken.

Evidence of imminent wheel, hub or bearing failure
You must know the normal appearance of wheel and hub components, and the visual indications of more serious unsafe conditions, and that a vehicle has this major defect when there is visual evidence that a wheel, hub or bearing failure could occur.

Procedure:
Open hood if access will improve visibility and inspect inner-and-outer wheel assembly to ensure:

    • Any wheel, rim, or any part used to attach the wheel or rim, is not damaged, cracked or broken.
    • There is no visual evidence that a wheel, hub or bearing failure could occur.